(Kurds) is a term used to express the Kurdish people, who generally consider themselves the indigenous people of a region often referred to as Kurdistan, which forms adjacent parts of Iraq,
Turkey, Iran, and Syria. The Kurds, according to the Kurdish historian Muhammad Amin Zaki (1880 - 1948) in his book "Summary of the History of the Kurds and Kurdistan", consists of two layers of
peoples, the first layer that inhabited Kurdistan since the dawn of time "and Muhammad Amin Zaki calls it" the peoples of the Zakros mountains "and it is, according to the opinion of the
mentioned historian The people of "Lulu, Kuti, Kurti, Juti, Judi, Kasai, Subari, Khalidi, Mitanni, Huri, Nairi" are the very ancient origins of the Kurdish people and the second layer: it is the
class of Indo-European peoples that migrated to Kurdistan in the tenth century BC, and settled Kurdistan with its indigenous peoples, who are “Medes and Cardoids.” And it mixed with its
indigenous peoples for Together form the Kurdish nation.
There is a kind of consensus among orientalists, historians, and geographers regarding the mountainous region located in the north of the Middle East along the Zakros Mountains and Taurus Mountains, the region where the Kurds inhabited since ancient times, and the Kurds call this Kurdistan the name of this region and this region is parts of northern Iraq and northwestern Iran, northeastern Syria, and southeastern Turkey. In addition to these regions, the Kurds exist in a small number in southwestern Armenia and some regions of Azerbaijan and Lebanon. The Kurds are considered one of the largest nationalities that do not have a unified political entity or entity recognized internationally. There is a lot of controversy about the Kurdish people, starting from their origin and extending to their history and even in the field of their political future. This historical controversy has intensified in recent years, especially after the changes that occurred in the reality of the Kurds in Iraq after the second Gulf War and the formation of the no-fly zone that led to the emergence of an entity Kurdistan region in northern Iraq.
Because of the Arab nationalist racism towards the Kurds, the academic study of the history of the Kurds was subjected to many difficulties due to the political reality of the Kurds, which led some to rely on historical non-academic accounts of the Kurds, such as the decline of the Kurds from the jinn and imps, for example, and there was no reference to the names of the Kurdish states and Emirates that existed In the Islamic era such as Al-Rouadiyyah (230 - 618 for immigration), Salariya (300 - 420), Al-Hussaniyya Al-Barzakani (959 - 1015), Shaddadiyah (951 - 1199), Al-Dostiya Al-Marwani (990 - 1085), Al-Anaziyah (990 - 1117), Al-Shawankarah, Great Lori, Minor Lori, and the Emirate of Jordan (1169 - 1867) and dozens of things Other Kurdish cities, including the Principality of Bhutan, the Principality of Soran, the Principality of Bahdinan, and the Principality of Baban, and this last rule lasted until 1851.
The controversial question about the origin of the Kurds, which was and still is a hot topic for discussion, revolves around two hypotheses:
The roots of the Kurds originated from the Indo-European peoples.
The roots of the Kurds originated from an independent people that are neither Indian nor European, and the people of the “Zakros Mountains” that inhabited Kurdistan since the dawn of time are called “Lulu, Kuti, Kurti, Joti, Judi, Kasai, Subari, Khaldi, Mitanni, Hori, Nairi”. According to the belief of this trend, the Indo-European peoples who immigrated to Kurdistan in the tenth century B.C. joined the people of Kurdistan with their indigenous peoples, the Medes and the Kurds.
One of the paradoxes in the history of this controversy is that the primary purpose of it was not academic but rather political, as it was intended to prove that the origin of the Kurds is due to areas outside some of the countries they settle at the present time and as a result of the lack of scientific purpose in these fruitless discussions have emerged 3 intellectual streams:
A current made up of Arab nationalists, owners of the ancient Mesopotamia civilization, and some orientalists and historians are convinced that the origins of the Kurds are Indo-European and that they came from regions outside the geographical spot that they currently reside in.
There is a stream composed of Kurdish nationalists who are convinced that they are an independent people in their own right and have characteristics that distinguish them from other peoples. The Kurds cite the celebration of Nowruz as an example. Although the holiday is celebrated by neighboring peoples, the Kurds have a completely different concept from this holiday compared to that of Iran, Afghanistan, Albania, and Pakistan on this holiday.
There is a current made of the Kurds themselves convinced that the origins of the Kurds are of Indo-European origin and that this trend arose in reaction to what this stream considered marginalization and fighting by the neighboring racist peoples. This stream, which tries to return the origins of the Kurds to Aryan or European veins, is born.
To pursue the academic method of searching for the roots of the Kurds, researchers and archaeologists have resorted to searching for ancient peoples in the areas that were inhabited by the Kurds since ancient times.
The idea of the research was to identify the peoples that were independent in terms of language and to link their members with the common characteristics that distinguish them from the rest of the known peoples in Mesopotamia, through this research. Some people have been recognized as having the ancient roots of the Kurds, and these peoples are:
The people who inhabited the area of Tel Halif, which was the site of the Aramean city-state, Guzana. This region is located in north-eastern Syria, in the province of Hasaka, and dates back to the Neolithic period and is located near the Khabour River. There are manuscripts in the archives of the Assyrian king Counter Narari II that this city-state was independent for a short period of time until it was controlled by the Assyrian queen Samir Ames in the year 808 BC.
The Hurrians, or the Hurri people, who lived in the north of the Middle East in the period 2500 BC and formed for themselves small kingdoms, the most important of which is the Mitanni Kingdom in northern Syria in 1500 BC It is believed that the Hurrians emerged from the city of Orkish, which is located near the city of Qamishli in Syria. The Hurrians took advantage of the temporary weakness of the Babylonians, and they besieged and controlled Babylon in the period 1600 BC. From this people the Mitanians or a Mitanian people emerged and the Kurdish historian Muhammad Amin Zaki (1880-1948) is considered in his book "The Summary of the History of the Kurds and Kurdistan". The Hurri and Mitanni people are among the first roots of the Kurdish people. The end of the kingdom of the people of Horry at the hands of the Assyrians.
The Greek historian Xenophon (427 - 355) BC mentioned in his writings a people who described them as "strong fighters who inhabit the mountainous regions" and called them the Cardochians, who attacked the Roman army while crossing the region in 400 BC and that region was southeast of Turkey.However, some historians consider Kardukhis an Indo-European people, and later joined the Kurdish people, who some believe have their roots in Zakros non-Indo-European.